Further Information


  • Robert L. Bowman, "The History and Development of the Spectrophotofluorometer," Fluorescence News 8 (1974): 1-8.
  • R. L. Bowman, P. A. Caulfield, and Sidney Udenfriend, "Spectrophotofluorometric Assay in the Visible and Ultraviolet," Science (1955): 32-33.
  • Sidney Udenfriend, "Development of the Spectrophotofluorometer and Its Commercialization," Protein Science 4 (1995): 542-55.
  • Robert Kanigel, Apprentice to Genius: The Making of a Scientific Discovery (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986).
    This book discusses the mentor-student relationship in the sciences, focusing on the chain between Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod, Solomon Snyder, and Candace Pert. It includes information about the Goldwater antimalarial group and NIH in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Robert L. Bowman's papers are held at the Office of History, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • James Shannon's papers are held at the National Library of Medicine, including correspondence, talks, articles, reports, and photographs.
  • Julius Axelrod's papers are held at the National Library of Medicine and available on the Profiles in Science site, including lab notebooks, research reports, correspondence, speeches, and photographs.
  • http://www.nobel.se/
    The Nobel e-museum includes biographical information on Nobel Laureates in every field, including Julius Axelrod (1970).
  • http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/HH/
    The National Library of Medicine's Profiles in Science web site includes biographical information on Julius Axelrod, as well as scanned papers and photographs.
  • http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/jshannon.html
    The National Academy Press web site includes this biographical essay on James Shannon, former NIH president.
  • http://www.laskerfoundation.org/
    The web site of the Albert Lasker Foundation includes information about the prize and about each winner. Dr. Brodie won the Lasker in 1967.
  • http://www.pittcon.org
    The AMINCO-Bowman SPF was first exhibited at the 1956 Pittsburgh Analytical Conference. Today the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy continues to attract the latest advances in science instrumentation.
  • http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/history/index.html
    This on-line exhibit from the Stetten Museum provides "A short history of the National Institutes of Health."
  • http://www.who.int/health topics/malaria.htm
  • http://www.cdc.gov/travel/malinfo.htm
    These sites contain information on research and treatment of malaria from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (at NIH), the World Health Organization, and the Centers for Disease Control.
  • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/
    The web site of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (formerly the National Heart Institute) of the NIH provides information about current research


This exhibit was produced by the Stetten Museum, Office of NIH History, Victoria A. Harden, Ph.D., Director, in cooperation with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Claude Lenfant, M.D., Director.

Exhibit team

  • Michele Lyons
  • Richard Barnes
  • Phyllis Goodnow
  • Rayne Ann Wood

Web team

  • Sarah Leavitt, Ph.D., Web exhibit author/editor
  • Alan Hoofring, and Donald Bliss, MAPB/ORS Web exhibit designers

Special thanks to the members of the exhibit planning committee from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute:

  • Robert L. Berger, Ph.D.
  • Raymond F. Chen, M.D., Ph.D.
  • Jay R. Knutson, Ph.D.
  • Keith O. Kalmbach
  • Thanks to LSM-AMINCO, Division of Spectronics Instruments, Inc., for donating the 1998 version of the SPF; to Molecular Probes, Inc., for the photomicrograph of mouse fibroblast cells; and to Eric Green, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas Ried, M.D., Mary Hawkins, and Martha Kirby, for assistance with the interactive video presentation.