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Footnotes 

These are the original footnotes from the original website. Footnotes are now included at the bottom of each section, Beacon Founding Years, Beacon Growth Years and Years of Change and Renewal. The page reference number listed first is the number now used on each page.  The next number is the original footnote used on the original website, to serve as a reference.

Founding Years

  1. 1 U.S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service, Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service of the United States, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1911, p. 78.
  2. 2 NIH Almanac, 1992, NIH Publication 92-5, pp. 121-25, 116.
  3. 3 Donald S. Fredrickson, ms, “Values and the Advance of Medical Science,” Proceedings of Conference on Integrity in Institutions, University of Texas Health Center, May 25, 1989, p. 7.
  4. 4 Collier’s, August 30, 1952, p. 33.
  5. 5 PHS proposed 10-year budget for NIH, October 23, 1944, exhibits H, I, in MS C 204, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine (hereafter NLM); The Reminiscences of Charles V. Kidd, Columbia University Oral History Collection (hereafter CUOHP), 13-14; Reminiscences of Norman H. Topping, 17-18; Reminiscences of Leonard A. Scheele, 22-24; Reminiscences of Vane M. Hoge, 21, National Library of Medicine Oral History Collection (hereafter, NLMOHC).
  6. 6 David P. Adams, “Wartime Bureaucracies and Penicillin Allocation: The Committee on Chemotherapeutic and Other Agents,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 44: 196-201, 209, 1989; Milton Wainwright, Miracle Cure: The Story of Penicillin, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990, pp. 63, 122-27.
  7. 7 Parran testimony, House Committee on Appropriations, 79th Congress, 1st Session, Hearings, Dept. of Labor/FSA, part 2, FY 1946 (April 18, 1945), pp. 269-77; NIH postwar program outline, National Advisory Health Council (hereafter, NAHC), agenda notes for June 19-20, 1945, meeting, in folder 0240, box 1, Accession 90-62A-490 [Records of the Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General], Washington National Records Center (hereafter WNRC), Suitland, MD.
  8. 8 Minutes, NAHC meeting, September 28, 1945, box 1, Acc. 90-62A-490, WNRC; Harry M. Marks, “Notes from Underground: The Social Organization of Therapeutic Research,” in Russell C. Maulitz and Diana E. Long, eds., Grand Rounds: One Hundred Years of Internal Medicine, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, pp. 299-312, 319-20.
  9. 9 Lewis Thomas, The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine Watcher, New York: Viking Press, 1983, pp. 27-35.
  10. 10 Parran testimony, House Appropriations Subcommittee, 80th Congress, 1st Session, Hearings, Dept. of Labor/FSA part 2, FY 1948 (February 7, 1947), p. 477.
  11. 11 MSC 204, History of Medicine Division, NLM.
  12. 12 Allan Drury, A Senate Journal, 1943-1945, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963, pp. 4-5, 395-410.
  13. 13 Martha Lenz Walker, Beyond Bureaucracy: Mary Elizabeth Switzer and Rehabilitation, New York: University Press, 1988, pp. 112-17.
  14. 14 Memoranda, Dyer to J.K. Hoskins, Asst. Surgeon General (SG), December 17, 1946, Buildings and Grounds File, Office of the Director, NIH; PHS building proposals, transmitted with Crabtree to W.E. Reynolds, Commissioner of Public Buildings, January 19, 1947, in Acc. 90-62A-490, box 1, PBA Correspondence. Of 45 projects proposed nationwide, 31 were to be located on the Bethesda site.
  15. 15 House, Report #178, 80th Congress, 1st Session, March 21, 1947, pp. 24-26; Agenda for July 30, 1947, SG Conference, attached to memoranda, Parran to Dyer, “Clinical Research Facility... ," July 25, 1947, Buildings and Grounds File, Office of the Director, NIH.
  16. 16 Daniel Fox, “The Politics of the NIH Extramural Program, 1937-1950,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 42: 458-65, 1987.
  17. 17 Truman statement, October 8, 1947, in Public Papers of the Presidents, Harry S Truman, 1947, Washington, DC: GPO, 1965, pp. 473-74; Federal Board of Hospitalization, Resolution 320, November 4, 1947, Official File, Harry S Truman Library (hereafter, HSTL); Summary of minutes, Federal Board of Hospitalization meeting, November 4, 1947, Acc. 90-62A-490, box 17.
  18. 18 A. Siepert, planning review, 1952, Historian’s Office Papers, History of Medicine Division, NLM; House, Report #1519, 80th Congress, 2nd Session, March 5, 1948, pp. 29-30.
  19. 19 Oscar E. Ewing, memoranda to Truman, February 12, 1948, file 7B, Official Files, HSTL. Ewing — and Truman — believed Parran wanted reappointment in order to select his own successor, and this would have made the PHS too powerful. Ewing notes on four possible candidates, same file; minutes, NAHC meeting October 22-23, 1948, p. 4, in box 2, Acc. 90-62A-490, WNRC.
  20. 20 Memoranda, Masur to Dyer and Parran, January 6, 1948, Research Facilities Planning Committee File (hereafter, RFPC), Office of the Director, NIH; Masur and N.P. Thompson, “A National Clinical Center for Chronic Disease Research,” Hospitals, 1949 (November):1-2; Masur, Reminiscences, CUOHC, 19-22; Remarks of Dr. Otis L. Anderson, Chief, PHS Hospital Div., September 15, 1947, Conference of Medical Officers in Charge, U.S. Marine Hospitals, p.12, in box 18, Acc. 90-62A-490, WNRC.
  21. 21 Masur and Thompson, Hospitals, 1949 (November): 3-10; FSA/PHS press release, June 29, 1948, NIH Historian’s Papers, NLM; Memoranda, RFPC, December 31, 1948, Office of the Director, NIH.
  22. 22 NIH press release, September 9, 1949; RFPC memoranda #245 and #248, September 21, 1948 and October 7, 1949, RFPC file; Norman Topping, “The United States Public Health Service Clinical Center for Medical Research,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 150: 542-43 (October 11, 1952).
  23. 23 NIH memorandum for reference, “Conference of Deans...,“ May 28, 1949, p. 6, attached to Masur to Rev. McNally, June 2, 1949, RFPC file.
  24. 24 Robert Kanigel, Apprentice to Genius: The Making of a Scientific Dynasty, New York: Macmillan, 1986, 11-30, 65-71; Shannon, Reminiscences, NLMOHC, pp. 22-30.
  25. 25 Shannon to Masur, 10/31/49, RFPC file.
  26. 26 RFPC memoranda, “Present Status of Organizational Planning for the Clinical Center,” January 11, 1950, RFPC file.
  27. 27 Minutes, Institute Directors Meetings, December 9, 1949, p. 6, and December 13, 1949, p. 5, RFPC file.
  28. 28 RFPC memoranda, “Present Status...,“ January 11, 1950.
  29. 29 RFPC memoranda, “Further Discussions at Conf. with Dr. Kaplan,” September, pp. 3-4; minutes, Institute Directors meeting, December 1, 1949, pp. 1-12.
  30. 30 Monty M. Poen, Harry S Truman Versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1979, pp. 161-69.
  31. 31 Memoranda #272 to PBA, December 13, 1949, RFPC file. Funding was also denied for an overpass on Rockville Pike and mechanical equipment for Building 10.
  32. 32 Memoranda, W.E. Reynolds, Commissioner of Public Buildings, to SG Scheele, June 22, 1950, RFPC file; House, Committee on Appropriations, 81st Congress, 2nd Session, Hearings, FSA part 1, FY 1951 (January 11, 1950), p. 579.
  33. 33 Minutes, PBS conference, June 27, 1950, Project 18-063, RFPC file.
  34. 34 Memoranda, K. Nasi to SG, 5/18/50, PHS Building Committee files, folder 0245, Secretary Memoranda, box 1, Acc. 90-62A-490, WNRC; Masur to Nasi, May 24, 1950, “Assessment of Buildings...,“ RFPC file, Office of the Director, NIH.
  35. 35 Memoranda, C.V. Kidd, “Assumptions Underlying NIH Defense Planning,” August 2, 1950, and note to Truman, August 3, 1950, both in Office of Research Plans, NIH Director’s Office, Subject Files, folder Defense, 1950-51, box 2, RG 443, National Archives.
  36. 36 Congressional Record, 153: 96, August 3, 1950, pp. 11841-11860, 11876; Memorandum, “Justification of $30 million,” n.d., Office of Research Plans, Subject Files, box 2, folder Magnuson Amendment, RG 443.
  37. 37 Defense Activities of the NIH, May 13, 1952, p.12, in OPR Subject Files, same folder.
  38. 38 Poen, Harry S Truman Versus the Medical Lobby, pp. 188-92; Harry S Truman, Memoirs, Vol. II, Years of Trial and Hope, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956, pp. 17-23.
  39. 39 First Hoover Commission Report, quoted in memorandum, Larsen to Kidd, May 13, 1952, RFPC file.
  40. 40 Speech draft, August 15, 1950, Office of Research Plans, Subject Files, 1948-1956, box 2, RG443.
  41. 41 U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, The Advancement of Medical Research and Education, Washington, DC: HEW, 1958, pp. 55-56.
  42. 42 Masur to Haas, September 1, 1949, RFPC file; N. Topping, JAMA, October 11, 1952, pp. 541-43.

Growth Years

  1. 43 Shannon, Reminiscences, CUOHP, 32.
  2. 44 Rough notes on Scheele testimony, House Appropriations Subcommittee, March 3,1954, attached to minutes, April 1, 1954, Institute Directors Meeting, in Subject File, Office of the Director, NIH, box 3, RG 443.
  3. 45 Topping, "The United States Public Health Service Clinical Center for Medical Research", pp. 544; NAHC minutes, February 20-21, 1953, Subject File, box 4, RG 443; memorandum, Sebrell to All NIH Employees, March 4, 1953, Historian’s File, HMD, NLM.
  4. 46 Sebrell, oral history, pp. 57, 160.
  5. 47 Hobby speech text, July 2, 1953, Office of the Director, NIH, in Historian’s Office File, HMD, NLM.
  6. 48 Minutes, Scientific Directors meeting, January 13, 1954, box 3, RG 443.
  7. 49 Minutes, Scientific Directors meeting, April 2, 1952.
  8. 50 Washington Post, August 9, 1953, lB.
  9. 51 Typescript, Proceedings of the Combined Clinical Staffs, NIH Clinical Center, January 20, 1954, presentation by Dr. James Wyngaarden, in box Miles, Institutes, folder Clinical Center, 1953, HMD, NLM.
  10. 52 Minutes, Medical Board meetings, May 25, 1953 and June 6, 1953, and Report of Clinical Research Committee, May 25, 1953, Medical Board minutes file; statement, Admission and Discharge Policies for the Clinical Center, May 8, 1953 box 3, Subject File, RG 443.
  11. 53 Jane E. Smith, Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine, New York: William Morrow, 1990, pp. 175-87, 248-60, 295-300, 359-68.
  12. 54 Congressional Research Service, Congress and the Nation, 1945-1964, pp. 1136-37.
  13. 55 Sebrell, oral history, pp. 96-97.
  14. 56 Minutes, NAHC meeting, 10/27-28/55, Supp. II,2,4, in box 3, Subject File, RG 443.
  15. 57 Shannon, Reminiscences, CUOHP, 35-39; Congress and the Nation, 1945-1964, p. 1125; Bruce Merchant, “Clinical Research in the National Institutes of Health,” senior thesis, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 1957, pp. 19-20.
  16. 58 “Conference of the Combined Clinical Staff,” 7/1/54, business session, pp. 3-6, NIH Library.
  17. 59 Data Assembled for the Special Committee on Medical Research of the National Science Foundation, Bethesda: NIH, 1955, NIH Library, no page numbers.
  18. 60 Proceedings of the Combined Clinical Staff Conference, April 11, 1957, pp. 1-2, NIH Library.
  19. 61 Memorandum, Executive Officer to Director, NIH, “Study of Nursing Activities..., March 1, 1956, Subject Files, folder Clinical Center Nursing Study, 1956, box 25, RG 443.
  20. 62 U.S. House, Hearings, 84th Congress, 2nd Session, Appropriations Subcommittee, Depts. of Labor/HEW, FY 1957, pp. 502-5.
  21. 63 HEW, “Program Operations Report to the Secretary,” April-June, 1956, pp. 31-36, Subject File, box 20, RG 443.
  22. 64 Minutes, Medical Board, January 11, 1955, meeting, pp. 1-2; Merchant, “Clinical Research,” p. 37; HEW, “Program Operations,” April-June 1956, p. 36.
  23. 65 Shannon, Reminiscences, CUOHP, 31.
  24. 66 Sebrell remarks, dedication ceremony, June 25, 1953, NIH Historian’s Office papers, HMD, NLM.
  25. 67 Proceedings of the Combined Clinical Staff Conference, April 11, 1957, pp. 7-8.
  26. 68 Informal notes, Medical Board, November 6, 1957 meeting.
  27. 69 Merchant, “Clinical Research,” 68-69, citing December 11, 1956 interview. For the viewpoint of those scientists who feared clinical applications would misdirect basic science, see Arthur Kornberg, For the Love of Enzymes: The Odyssey of a Biochemist, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989, p. 128.
  28. 70 Masur, Reminiscences, CUOHP, 28-29. For the contrasting approach, see James A. Shannon, “The Relationship of Laboratory Research to Clinical Investigation,” address delivered 5/21/59, in NIH Historian’s Office File, HMD, NLM.
  29. 71 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1958, Nursing Dept., pp. 1-5, NIH Library; Medical Board, “Professional Services Review,” August 27, 1957, minutes file.
  30. 72 Minutes, Clinical Directors meeting, February 11, 1959, Acc. 443-62-D-0064, box 100, Washington National Record Center.
  31. 73 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, Nr 2,4; Staffing figures attached to minutes, Clinical Directors meeting, January 19, 1970, box 3, RG 443, National Archives.
  32. 74 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, Nr 4.
  33. 75 Minutes, Medical Board meeting, March 11, 1958; rough notes, same date, attached; memorandum, Williams to Shannon, November 28, 1958, “Estimate of Program Activities, FY 1961-1965,” box 103, Task Force folder, RG 90, WNRC.
  34. 76 Steering Committee Report, May 13, 1958, with rough notes, Medical Board minutes file.
  35. 77 Jerome B. Block, Clinical Center Contributions to Research, November 20, 1972, Historical File, Clinical Center Communications Office; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, CP-1.
  36. 78 News From NIH, publication of NIH Office of Research Information, March, 1965, Department of Diagnostic Radiation historical file; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1964-65, serial 35, pp. 1-3.
  37. 79 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, NM 1-14; Annual Report..., 1967-68, OD 36.
  38. 80 Shannon to Institute Directors, January 14, 1958, “Means of Gradually Re-orienting
  39. Intramural Research Programs,” Scientific Directors Meeting file, box 105, RG 90,WNRC: Report, Office of the Director, NIH, “Intramural Research Activities.. to 1970,” April 1959, box 104.
  40. 81 Congress and the Nation, 1945-1964, pp. 1139-41.
  41. 82 Department of HEW, Research for Health, PHS Pub.1205, Washington, DC: GPO, 1964,5-6; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1964-65, Nursing Dept., p. 3.
  42. 83 Research for Health, pp. 11-13; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1964-65, Blood Bank Dept., pp. 1-4.
  43. 84 Minutes, Medical Board meeting, December 11, 1962, p. 3.
  44. 85 Minutes, Medical Board meetings, September 25, 1962, and October 9, 1962.
  45. 86 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, OD-2; minutes, Normal ControlsCommittee meeting, April 24, 1963, 1-5; minutes, Medical Board meetings, July 28, 1964, October 11, 1966, and November 8, 1966.
  46. 87 New Haven Journal Courier, May 4, 1962.
  47. 88 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1964-65.
  48. 89 Stewart Alsop, Stay of Execution: A Sort of Memoir, Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1973, p. 39.
  49. 90 NIH Study Committee, Biomedical Science and Its Administration: A Study of the National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC: GPO, 1965, pp. 8-9; James A. Shannon, “The Advancement of Medical Research: A Twenty-year View of the National Institutes of Health,” Journal of Medical Education, 42: 102-108 (February, 1967).
  50. 91 Congress and the Nation, vol. II, 667-72, 680-90; Masur speech to New England Hospital Assembly, March 28, 1966, excerpts in Providence Journal, March 29, 1966; New York Times, May 30, 1966.
  51. 92 NIH Record, August 24, 1965.
  52. 93 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1966-67, OD-1.
  53. 94 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1965-66, OD-5, Nr 3; minutes, Medical Board Meeting, June 18, 1965; minutes, Clinical Directors meeting, September 16, 1967, box 3, RG443.
  54. 95 Minutes, Clinical Center staff meeting, July 2, 1968, box 3, RG 443; Joseph Califano, Jr., The Triumph and Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson: The White House Years, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991, pp. 253-73.
  55. 96 Hamilton, Lister Hill; Statesman from the South, pp. 275-81.
  56. 97 Masur, Reminiscences, NLM OHP, pp. 27-28.

Years of Change and Renewal

  1. 98 Minutes, Clinical Center staff meetings: May 6, 1969; July 15, 1969; November 18, 1969; April 20, 1971; box 3, RG 443.
  2. 99 Minutes, Clinical Directors special meeting, February 25, 1974; minutes, Medical Board meeting, October 27, 1970.
  3. 100 Richard A. Rettig, Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977, pp. 30-35; Science, 183: 1325-26, December 28, 1973.
  4. 101 NIH Program Review, 1975, box 8, folder, “Clinical Center Reorganization, 1974-1975,” RG443.
  5. 102 Memorandum, Director, Clinical Center to Director, NIH, 11/20/73, “Review of Institute Contracts. . .“ Clinical Directors meeting file, box 3, RG 443; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1972, Nr 6.
  6. 103 Science, 179: 546-47, February 9, 1973; 180: 843-44, May 25, 1973; 182: 460-61, September 23, 1973; 183: 1325-26, December 28, 1973; Burroughs Mider, “The Federal Impact on Biomedical Research,” in John Z. Bowers and Elizabeth Purcell, eds., Advances in American Medicine at the Bicentennial, vol. 2, New York: Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1976, pp. 861-64.
  7. 104 Marston to Assistant Secretary for Health, September 5, 1969, attached to minutes, September 15, 1969, Clinical Directors meeting, box 3, RG 443.
  8. 105 Minutes, Medical Board meetings, March 23, 1971, p. 3, and May 25, 1971, p. 5; draft, proposed memorandum, Medical Record Committee, 1971, Medical Board file.
  9. 106 Memorandum, E. Lawrence, Clinical Center Executive Officer, “Meeting with NCI Clinical Associates..." January 1, 1971, box 7, miscellaneous minutes folder; Chalmers to Clinical Directors, September 9, 1970, “Clinical Center Rounds...,” box 3, Clinical Directors minutes file; minutes, Department Heads meeting, February 16, 1971, same file.
  10. 107 Memorandum, Chalmers to Clinical Directors, September 29, 1972, “Nursing Shortage... ,“ Clinical Directors meeting file.
  11. 108 Minutes, Medical Board meetings: February 10, 1970; April 9, 1970; March 13, 1973.
  12. 109 Chalmers to Marston, July 27, 1971, minutes file, Clinical Directors meetings, box 3, RG 443.
  13. 110 Minutes, Department Heads meeting, February 15, 1972, box 3; 1975 Program Review, p. 5-2-2, box 8, RG 443.
  14. 111 Science, 180: 1258-61, June 22, 1973; minutes, Clinical Directors meeting, November 5, 1973; Memorandum, Stone to Weinberger, November 21, 1973, same file.
  15. 112 Science, 180: 1157, June 15, 1973; minutes, Clinical Directors meeting, November 4, 1973, p. 2.
  16. 113 Memoranda, Stetten to Stone, “Intramural Program for NIGMS... ,“ February 7, 1974; J. Doppman to J. Block, February 19,1974; Clinical Pathology survey, same date; Gordon to Stone, April 23, 1974, all in box 8, folder “Clinical Center Reorganization, 1974-1975,” RG 443.
  17. 114 Minutes, Medical Board meeting, March 12, 1974, and Clinical Directors special meeting, June 30, 1975.
  18. 115 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, FY 1975, Dir-1.
  19. 116 Agenda meeting of Intercouncil Representatives, July 16, 1975, Fredrickson file, minutes, 1975, folder 3, box 2, RG 443.
  20. 117 Minutes, Clinical Center Department Heads meeting, August 13, 1975; draft, “Review of Activities,” Director, NIH, July 16, 1976, Fredrickson file, minutes, 1976; minutes, Medical Board meetings: March 9, 1976; March 16, 1976; April 15, 1976.
  21. 118 Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1977, OD-1 ,3,1 0; minutes, Medical Board meetings: August 3, 1977; September 7, 1977.
  22. 119 Minutes, Medical Board meetings: November 2, 1976; December 6, 1976; December 5, 1978; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1977, OD-2; Annual Report..., 1979, OD-3.
  23. 120 Minutes, Medical Board meetings: October 4, 1977; September 7, 1979.
  24. 121 Briefing paper for HEW by Director, NIH, July 17, 1979, pp. 5-6, Fredrickson files, minutes, 1979, folder 1, box 3, RG 443; Annual Report of Program Activities, Clinical Center, 1979, OD-8.
  25. 122 NIH Record, 34, December 7, 1982.
  26. 123 NIH Record, 34, March 29, 1983; Steven A. Rosenberg, The Transformed Cell: Unlocking the Mysteries of Cancer, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1992, pp. 179, 201, 265.
  27. 124 Minutes, Medical Board meeting, January 15, 1985; memorandum, Surgical Administrative Committee, January 14, 1985, same file; Report to the Medical Board, Annual Report, Clinical Center, FY 1990, pp. 55-57.
  28. 125 W. French Anderson, “Human Gene Therapy,” Science, 256: 808-13 (May 8, 1992).
  29. 126 Institute of Medicine, Report of a Study: The AIDS Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991, p. 85.
  30. 127 Robin M. Henig, A Dancing Matrix: Voyages Along the Viral Frontier, New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1993, xi-xiii.