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[3] Yekaterinburg is a large city in the Ural region ofRussiaof Russia, where the Imperial family was held under house arrest in 1918.  The city was renamed Sverdlovsk in 1924, in honor of Bolshevik leader Sverdlov.  The original name Yekaterinburg was reinstated in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the failed coup d’etat that brought an end to Communist Party rule inRussia.  The discussion in the recorded interview reflects the variation in names for the city.


[24] One of the best English-language sources on the tick-borne encephalitis investigation in the Soviet Far East that is being discussed here is contained in Kisselev, Lev L., Gary I. Abelev, and Feodor Kisseljov. “Lev Zilber, the Personality and the Scientist,” Advances in Cancer Research 59 (1992): 1–40.

[25] Robert Huebner’s collaboration with colleagues at the National Cancer Institute in the burgeoning field of viral oncology, and the process of his formal transfer to NCI over the course of the 1960s, is discussed in Chapter 15 of Edward A. Beeman, Robert J. Huebner, M.D.: A Virologist’s Odyssey (2005).

[26] The interviewer had in mind especially a published commentary on the importance of chance observations in the hepatitis B story: H. J. Alter, “The unexpected outcomes of medical research: serendipity and the Australia antigen. [Comment on] Blumberg BS, Alter HJ, Visnich S. ‘A new antigen in leukemia sera’ [J Am Med Assoc 1965;191:541-546],” Journal of Hepatology 39 (2003) 2, 149-152.