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  Before 1970, we knew little about how hormones work. Since then, a revolution has taken place. As evidence of this, more than one quarter of all Nobel Prizes for Physiology and Medicine, from 1970 to 1998, have been awarded to scientists whose work revealed some aspect of hormone action at the molecular level. Progress in this area has been fueled by extensive support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Martin Rodbell is just one of these Nobel laureates. A sampling of the others is below. Also listed are the Institutes of the NIH that provided support for at least a portion of each investigator's work.
For the first description of the way hormones work at the molecular level.

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

For the discovery of "releasing hormones", which mediate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Roger C. L. Guillemin

Andrew V. Schally

For discovery of protein kinases, which mediate the effects of hormones in cells.

Edmond H. Fischer


Edwin G. Krebs
For the discovery that a gas (nitric oxide) plays a role as one of the body's signaling molecules.

Robert F. Furchgott

Louis J. Ignarro

Ferid Murad


All Photos: © The Nobel Foundation
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