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Page Banner: Drugs as opiates; drugs as research tools
  Development of "Excitotoxicity  
  An illustration showing a nociceptor and an A-beta mechanoreceptor moving toward the feelings of pain and touch in the normal brain.

An illustration showing sustained nociceptive input over a long period leading to excitotoxicity in the brain.
  Development of " excitotoxicity " in response to ongoing pain signals from an injured nerve. Illustration by Donald Bliss, adapted from: Richard Gracely, Susan Lynch, and Gary Bennett, Painful neuropathy: altered central processing maintained dynamically by peripheral input.  
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