the decades following Dr.
Axelrod's groundbreaking work, many other scientists
have used the SPF in their research. Dr. Bowman
could never have imagined these applications back
in 1955. He provided a tool for a new generation
of scientists, who take the fluorescence phenomenon
for granted and use variants of his instrument in
their search for new ways to learn about the human
fluorescence and updated versions of the SPF are
used in measuring the quantity or cellular location
of drugs, salts, proteins, or DNA. Other examples
of research using fluorescence include: sequencing
DNA; detecting viral or bacterial DNA during PCR
(polymerase chain reaction) tests of potential
bioterror samples; studying protein and drug activity
and binding; measuring cell markers in AIDS; researching
how muscles work; and tracing neuron receptors
to map the brain.
provided a tool for a new generation of scientists.
of mouse fibroblast cells stained with three different
dyes: two for different cytoskeletal components
(green stain for actin fibers, orange for tubulin
fibers), and one (violet) for the DNA coiled and
packaged inside cell nuclei. Photograph by
Jennifer Kramer and Sam Wells.
(Used with permission
of Molecular Probes, Inc.)